Emma has published articles on a wide range of topics. The following list is divided into: Work in Progress, Mind and Language, Business Ethics, Understanding of Pain.

Work in Progress

  1. Acting for Reasons: in defence of common-sense psychology (in press, OUP).
  2. A Very Short Introduction to Meaning (in press, OUP).
  3. LLMs, Turing Tests and Chinese Rooms: the prospects for meaning in large language systems‘, for a special volume of Inquiry. 
  4. ‘Unthinking heuristics: the No Reasons Challenge to common-sense psychology’, under review.

Mind & Language

1. ‘When is an interpreter not an interpreter? Using ‘Law and Corpus Linguistics’ to answer Waismann’s challenge to Ordinary Language Philosophy’ (forthcoming) with Maxime Lepoutre, Sara Vilar-Lluch, Nat Hansen. For Experimental Philosophy and Corpus Methods, eds. Ulatowski, Weijers, and Sytsma (Bloomsbury).

2. ‘What is it to be responsible for what you say?‘ (2024) in Words and Worlds: New Directions in Philosophy of Language. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 95: 1-20.

3. The problems of polysemy’ (in press), in The Oxford Handbook or Contemporary Philosophy of Language, editors E. Lepore & U. Stojnić.

4. ‘What is hate speech? The case for a corpus approach’ (2023), with Maxime Lepoutre, Sara Vilar-Lluch, Nat Hansen, Criminal Law and Philosophy.

5. ‘In defence of individual rationality (2022), Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society.

6. ‘Understanding implicatures’ (2022) in Linguistics meets Philosophy, ed. D. Altshuler, Cambridge University Press. 441-469.

7. ‘Strict and Conversational Linguistic Liability: some empirical observations’ (2022), with Patrick J. Connolly. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Language, ed. E. Lepore and D. Sosa. Oxford University Press. 1-22.

8. Meaning and communication’, with Antonio Scarafone & Marat Shardimgaliev, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

9. ‘Semantic Content and Utterance Context: A Spectrum of Approaches’, co-authored with Sarah Fisher, (2021) Philosophy of Language: Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics, ed. P. Stalmaszczyk. Cambridge University Press. 174-193.

10. ‘Language and Context’ (2021), in Women of Ideas, ed. Suki Finn. Oxford University Press.

11. ‘Questions under discussion and the semantics/pragmatics divide’, with Jumbly Grindrod, (2019) Philosophical Qarterly. Online First:

12. ‘Millikan, Meaning and Minimalism‘ (2018), Theoria 84: 242-258

13. ‘On deflationary accounts of human action understanding’ (2018), Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9: 503-522Online First

14. ‘Explanatory roles for minimal content’, Nous 2017. Online first: doi: 10.1111/nous.12217

15. ‘Mirroring, mindreading and behaviour-reading’ (2017), Journal of Consciousness Studies 24: 24-49.

16. ‘Local vs. global pragmatics: a reply to Simons‘ (2017). Inquiry 60: 509-516.

17.  ‘Finding meaning’ (2016) The Linguist 55: 22-24.

18. ‘Exploding explicatures‘ (2016). Mind and Language 31: 335-355.

19. ‘Applied philosophy of language‘ (2017) in The Blackwell Companion to Applied Philosophy, edited by K. Brownlee, K. Lippert-Ramussen, D. Coady. 180-195.

20. ‘From ape empathy to human morality?’ (2014). Analysis 74: 577-587

21.    ‘More questions for mirror neurons‘ (2013), Consciousness and Cognition 22: 1122-1131.

22.    ‘Semantics without pragmatics‘ (2012) in The Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics, edited by K. Allen and K. Jaszczolt. Cambridge: CUP. 513-528.

23.    ‘Minimalism and the content of the lexicon’ (2010). In Meaning and Context, ed. L. Baptista and E. Rach. Bern: Peter Lang. 51-78.

24.    ‘The place of referential intentions in linguistic content’ (2009), Manuscrito 32: 85-122. Special edition on semantics/pragmatics.

25.    ‘Must a semantic minimalist be a semantic internalist?’ (2009), This is an electronic version of a paper published in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume LXXXIII: 31-51. Posting of the published paper on any other electronic public server may only be done with prior written permission from The Aristotelain Society.

26.    ‘Meaning and context: a survey of a contemporary debate’ (2009). In The Later Wittgenstein on Language, ed. D. Whiting. Palgrave. 96-113.

27.    ‘Minimal semantics and the nature of psychological evidence’ (2009). In New Waves in Philosophy of Language, ed. S. Sawyer. Palgrave. 24-409

28.    ‘Semantic minimalism’ (2009). In The Pragmatics Encyclopedia, ed. L. Cummings. Routledge. 423-5.

29.    ‘On three theories of implicature: Default Theory, Relevance and Minimalism’ (2009), International Review of Pragmatics 1: 1-21. This paper is to be reprinted in Meaning and Analysis: Themes from H. Paul Grice, ed. K. Petrus (Palgrave), and Pragmatics: Critical Concepts II, ed. A. Kasher (Routledge).

30.    ‘If mirror neurons are the answer, what was the question?‘ (2007), Journal of Consciousness Studies 14: 5-19.

31.    ‘Minimalism versus Contextualism in semantics‘ (2007), in G. Preyer and G. Peter (eds) Context Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism : Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics. 546-571. Reprinted in The Semantics-Pragmatics Boundary in Philosophy, M. Ezcurdia & R. Stainton (eds). Oxford: OUP.

32.    ‘Pragmatic determinants of what is said’ (2005), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition. K. Brown (Editor in Chief). Oxford: Elsevier. 737-40.

33.    ‘Formal Semantics and Intentional States’ (2004), Analysis 64, 215-23.

34.   ‘Intention-based Semantics‘ (2005) in E. Lepore & B. Smith (eds) Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 250-267.

35.    ‘Saying What You Mean: unarticulated constituents and communication‘ (2005) in R. Elugardo & R. Stainton (eds) Ellipsis and Non-sentential Speech. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 237-262.

36.  ‘The Semantic Relevance of What is Said‘ (2002), Protosociology 17: Semantic theory and reported speech, 6-24.

37.   ‘Pointing at Jack, Talking About Jill: Understanding Deferred Uses of Demonstratives and Pronouns’ (2002), Mind and Language 17, 489-512.

38.    ‘Natural Language and Symbolic Logic’, co-authored with Prof. E. Lepore (2002) in The Blackwell Companion to Symbolic Logic, ed. D. Jacquette. Oxford: Blackwell. 86-102

39.    ‘An Expedition Abroad: Metaphor, Thought and Reporting‘ (2001) in P. French & H. Wettstein (eds) Midwest Studies in Philosophy XXV. Oxford: Blackwell. 227-248.

40.   ‘Deferred Demonstratives’ (2002) in Meaning and Truth: Investigations in Philosophical Semantics, eds Campbell, O’Rourke, Shier. New York: Seven Bridges Press. 214-230.

41.   ‘The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Singular Terms’ (2001), Philosophical Papers 30, 1-30.

42.   ‘Complex Demonstratives’ (2000), Philosophical Studies 97, 229-249. Access through JSTOR.

43.   ‘Semantic Category and Surface Form’ (1998), Analysis 58, 232-238.

Business Ethics

1. Reshaping relations between the state and the private sector post-Covid-19? Exploring the social licence framework’, with Charlotte Unruh (2021), Journal of the British Academy 9, 87–113.

2. ‘Social licence for business: a framework for reshaping the private sector in a post-pandemic world‘. Consultation document, British Academy project output.

3. ‘The thesis of ‘doux commerce’ and the social licence to operate’ (2020), Business Ethics: A European Review. 

4. ‘Epistemic virtues vs. ethical values in the financial services sector’ (2017), Journal of Business Ethics. 

Understanding of Pain

1. ‘The meaning of “pain” and pain communication’, with Nat Hansen and Tim Salomons (2019), in The Meanings of Pain, Vol. II, ed. S. van Rysewyk, Springer. Pp.261-282.

2. ‘Is the folk concept of pain polyeidic?‘ (2020), Mind and Language. Authors: Emma Borg, Richard Harrison, James Stazicker, Tim Salomons.

3. Is pain “all in your mind”? Examining the general public’s views of pain, Tim Salomons, Rich Harrison, Nat Hansen, James Stazicker, Astrid Grith Sorenson, Paula Thomas, Emma Borg (2021) Review of Philosophy and Psychology.

4. ‘Pain Priors, Polyeidism, and Predictive Power: A preliminary investigation into individual differences in our ordinary thought about pain’ (2022) Sarah Fisher, Nat Hansen, Rich Harrison, Tim Salomons, Emma Borg. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. Special Issue on Experimental Philosophy of Medicine.

5. Investigating the Relationship Between Pain Indicators and Observers’ Judgments of Pain (2023) Tim Salomons, Lindsey Yessick, Justine Tanguay, Wiebke Gandhi, Richard Harrison, Ruxandra Dinu, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Emma Borg. European Journal of Pain 27: 223-233.